Pulses — beans and lentils — are a staple in diets all over the world — for example, Indian dhal or traditional Chinese and Japanese foods using mung, adzuki and soya (edamame) beans, Mexican bean chilli and burritos, Spanish fried beans, African rice and bean dishes or a myriad of European lentil recipes.
Apart from being very nutritious and super sustainable, beans and lentils also have some splendid effects on our health. The Food and Agriculture Organisation of the United Nations declared 2016 as the International Year of Pulses in order to increase public awareness of the nutritional benefits of pulses and to highlight how sustainable their production is.
These little wonders are a great source of protein, complex (healthy) carbohydrates, several B vitamins, vitamin K, calcium, potassium, iron and zinc. They offer an excellent nutrition package and that’s why
they are a part of most traditional cuisines across the world. Thanks to their protein and complex carbohydrates, they help stabilise blood sugar and, because of that, are great at preventing and managing type 2 diabetes. Beans and lentils contain natural phenolic compounds and carotenoids; these are responsible for their colour, but are also powerful antioxidants and have anti-inflammatory
properties. Brown, black and red colours mean significantly more of these than pale colours, such as white, yellow and light green. These pigments and their health protective properties have been linked to a lower risk of cardiovascular disease, type 2 diabetes and even cancer.
Beans and lentils should always be consumed well-cooked as when raw or undercooked, they can cause serious health problems, food poisoning and, in extreme cases, even death. It’s all because they contain natural compounds called lectins which are toxic but, fortunately, cooking destroys these. There’s a theory that lectins evolved as a defence mechanism in some plants. Animals are able to smell lectins so they avoid plants that contain them. By discovering cooking, humans outsmarted plant evolution and unlocked the world of pulses. To be precise, cooking doesn’t absolutely destroy lectins but it does reduce the content to a minimum and so long as your beans and lentils are thoroughly cooked, you’re safe.
Sprouting decreases the lectin content. The longer the duration of sprouting, the more lectins are deactivated. Sprouted pulses can be a part of a healthy diet but be careful because eating beansprouts or sprouted lentils that haven’t been given enough sprouting time may make you sick.
As a rule of thumb, don’t sprout the bigger beans such as kidney, cannellini or butter beans as they contain too much in the way of lectins. Whole or split lentils, chickpeas, mung and adzuki beans are safe to sprout.
Down to Business
When it comes to beans, there is no getting around it — they take a long time to cook so it’s best to soak them first and cook in big batches, freezing what you don’t use. Or, of course, you can simply buy them tinned. The nutritional values are similar either way.
There are lots of different types of lentils, but when it comes to cooking, there are two. Red (split) lentils cook much faster than any other type and turn mushy. This makes them great for soups, dhals and stews, particularly for thickening. All the other lentil types take longer to cook but hold their shape so can be used in recipes where texture is important, such as roasts, burgers or as a mince replacement.
When cooking beans or lentils, don’t add salt or acidic ingredients such as tomatoes or lemon juice because that hardens them and considerably increases the cooking time. It’s best to add these ingredients towards the end of the process.
Most of us have worried at one time or another about the flatulence that beans are bring on; but there are ways to avoid it. The more often you eat beans, the less likely you are to be bloated because your gut bacteria adapt and help to digest them better. There are also a few handy tricks to aid digestion — add a large strip of the kombu seaweed to beans when soaking and cooking them, removing it when cooked. If you can use tinned beans, make sure you discard the liquid and thoroughly rinse the beans before using. Both kombu and rinsing help to get rid of some specific, gas-producing carbohydrates.
Particular ingredients can also play and important part — adding ginger, fennel and cumin or caraway seeds to the bean dish helps to reduce bloating. Pulses are amazing; they boast lots of great nutritional and health properties, so don’t let a bit of gas get between you!
We tend to use pulses in more traditional dishes but you can easily add them to a wide variety of meals, particularly if you want to increase your protein intake. Blend them into thick, creamy sauces or dips; add them to just about any soup, casserole or salad; fry them with spices for a tasty topping to savoury dishes; blend or mash them and use in sweet baking; use them as a replacement for meat in many ‘meaty’ recipes; or roast them for a handy snack. Get creative and add more pulses to your diet.
By Veronika Powell, Viva!Health
For more inspiration, check out our Best Ever Beans on Toast recipe, here!